Thursday, July 7, 2011

Plant and Animal Toxins

Phytotoxins are toxic chemicals produced by plants.

                             - Chemical compounds that naturally occur in plants. 
                             - Contains nitrogen derived from amino acids.
                             -  Most are bitter tasting
                             - Some which are use as medicines particularly affects the                                                  nervous system.

                                                     Examples of Plants: 
                                                                             Larkspur (Delphinium)
                                                                             Monkshood (Aconitum)
                                                                             Lupin or Lupine



                  -Toxins in which a sugar molecule is linked with oxygen to another compound which is most commonly nitrogen-based.
                  -Develop into a harmful substance when the sugar molecule is removed.

                                                     Examples of Plants:
                                                                             Star of Bethlehem
                                                                             Lily if the Valley
                                                                             Wild Hyacinth


                           -Are the unstable salts of oxalic acid
                           -Undergo breakdown when eaten to release the highly                                                poisonous acid 

                                                     Examples of Plants:

           Animal Toxins

                               Zootoxins are toxins produced by animals


                              -Toxins that affects and destroy the red blood cells
                              -Interrupts the blood clotting process
                              -Causes damage to internal organs and body tissue

                             -Toxins that causes permanent tissue damage(myonecrosis).

                            -Toxins that affects the nervous system mainly influencing the                                   neurons of nerve cells.
                            -Primarily causes paralysis.

                 Other Animal Toxin Classes

Photo Credit:

                         Nova Scotia Museum     
                         Oracle Thinkquest
                         Venomous Reptiles of the United States, Canada and Northern Mexico
                                             Carl H. Ernst, Evelyn M. Hurst
                         International Society for Complexity, Information  and Design

Monday, June 13, 2011

Anterior Pituitary Hormones (POEM)

Anterior Pituitary where could you be?
One must know where I could find thee.
Part of the Pituitary Gland I know you would be,
The master gland that’s no larger than A pea.

Photo Credit: Pituitary
Anterior Pituitary also known as Adenohypophysis,
Secretes hormones that are essential for bodily activities.
Responsible for one’s growth and development,
Even for one’s reproductive health.

Human growth hormone also known as Somatotropin,
Hormone that regulates body growth and metabolism.
Harm could come if too much as well as too little levels there would be.
Gigantism and Dwarfism are few conditions one could cause thee.

Photo Credit: Wikipedia
Photo Credit: Dwarfism

Thyroid –Stimulating Hormone concerns the thyroid gland,
Also known as Thyrotropin that controls its activities and secretions.
Harm could come if too much as well as too little levels there would be.
Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism are few conditions one could cause thee.

Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone concern the gonads,
Which are jointly termed as the gonadotrophins.
Stimulate secretion of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone,
Even the maturation of oocytes and sperm production.

Prolactin Hormone together with other hormones,
Initiate milk secretion and production.
This hormone is mainly concerned with Lactation,
Which provides for little ones nourishment and immune protection.

Photo Credit: Breastfeeding Logo

Adrenocorticotropic hormone also known as corticotropin.
Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete gluco-corticoids,
Such as cortisol, it is released in response to stress.
This is how the Anterior Pituitary Hormones work at its best.

Photo Credit: Anterior Pituitary Hormones


                                Principles of Anatomy and Physiology
                                                Gerard J. Tortora, Bryan Derrickson

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Endocrinology, Toxicology and Drug Testing

Various diseases are clustered into studies which they belong to.

Some are group according to the organ affected or the organ involved like in the case of cardiology which is a study that involves the heart.

  A number of diseases are not organ related, they can be glands which produces hormones that are essential in several body processes and development to be carried out.

            Endocrinology is a good example of this type of study.

 It is a study that deals with hormones produce by the endocrine glands which are the thyroid, adrenal glands, the pituitary, pancreas, hypothalamus and the reproductive glands –ovaries for females and testes for males. 

Photo Credit:

And few diseases are group into studies which are not organs, glands and hormone related.

Toxicology is a form of this type of study.

It is a study that deals with poisons, toxins or drugs that may be illegal or legal and could cause harm as well as death to a person.

Photo Credit:

Along with Toxicology, Drug testing although it is not a type of study, it is a method employed to determine if a person make use of illegal drugs and also to determine if there are substances present that may be of medical use or illegally taken.

Photo Credit: Drug Testing

       Toxicology By Gary D. Osweiler
                               Fundamental toxicology By John H. Duffus, Howard G. J. Worth
                               Endocrinology Research Info
                               University of Mary Land Medical Center
                         Endocrinology Health Guide
                               HealthyPlace America's Mental Health Channel